North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is the 28th largest and ninth most populous of the 50 United States, bordered by Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Georgia and South Carolina to the south, and Tennessee to the west. The earliest evidence of human occupation in North Carolina dates back 10,000 years, found at Hardaway Site. The state was inhabited by Algonquian, Iroquois, and Siouana-speaking Native American tribes before the arrival of Europeans.
In 1729, North Carolina was established as a royal colony and was one of the Thirteen Colonies. The state was named after King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, Carolus in Latin for Charles. In 1755, colonial North Carolina received its first postmaster, James Davis, appointed by Benjamin Franklin. The Halifax Resolve Resolution, adopted by North Carolina on April 12, 1776, was the first formal call for independence from Britain among the American colonies during the American Revolution. The North Carolina colony was founded in 1653 by settlers from Virginia.
The port city of Wilmington, North Carolina, was the last Confederate port to fall into the hands of the Union in February 1865 after the Union won the nearby Second Battle of Fort Fisher. North Carolina is also famous for its tradition of early music and many recordings were made in the early 20th century by popular song collector Bascom Lamar Lunsford. The flag of the state of North Carolina contains two dates that establish it as the first state to declare independence. English, Welsh, Scottish and German settlers in western North Carolina tended to favor American independence from Great Britain. In 1691, landlords divided Carolina into North Carolina and South Carolina, separating their governments and economies. The Fayetteville Observer, established in 1816, is still published today and is the oldest newspaper in North Carolina.
North Carolina militias were a big part of their contributions to the war effort during the American Revolution. At Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia in April 1865, the 75th North Carolina Regiment fired the last shots of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the Civil War. National forests include Uwharrie National Forest in central North Carolina, Croatan National Forest in eastern North Carolina, Pisgah National Forest in western mountains and Nantahala National Forest in southwestern part of state. Following General Daniel Morgan's victory over British cavalry commander Banastre Tarleton at Battle of Cowpens on January 17, 1781, Southern Commander Nathanael Greene led British Lord Charles Cornwallis through heart of North Carolina and away from latter's supply base in Charleston, South Carolina. Today's economy has been dominated by research sector in fields such as biotechnology, pharmaceuticals and banking. North Carolina played an important role in Revolutionary War by constantly harassing British military and keeping it occupied in South.