The province of Carolina, including what is now North and South Carolina, was officially founded in 1663 when King Charles II recognized the efforts of eight nobles who helped him regain the throne in England. This marked the official North Carolina Colony Foundation. Evidence of human occupation in North Carolina dates back 10,000 years, found at the Hardaway Site. Before the arrival of Europeans, North Carolina was inhabited by Algonquian, Iroquois, and Siouana-speaking Native American tribes.
In 1729, North Carolina was established as a royal colony and was one of the Thirteen Colonies. It was named after King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, Carolus in Latin for Charles. In 1755, colonial North Carolina received its first postmaster, James Davis, appointed by Benjamin Franklin. The Halifax Resolve Resolution, adopted by North Carolina on April 12, 1776, was the first formal call for independence from Britain among the American colonies during the American Revolution.
With the king's officials appointing provincial governors, the North Carolina government became more stable and effective after 1729.In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, North Carolina transitioned from an economy based primarily on agriculture to industrialization, adding many more new jobs and occupations across the state. The Lord Propietors encouraged the importation of slaves into the province of North Carolina by instituting a system of head rights that gave settlers an area by the number of slaves they brought to the province.In 1691, the landlords divided Carolina into North Carolina and South Carolina, separating the governments and economies of the two sections. After the era of reconstruction, North Carolina had become a one-party state dominated by the Democratic Party. Confederate troops from all parts of North Carolina served in virtually every major battle of the Northern Virginia Army, the Confederacy's most famous army.Transportation systems in North Carolina consist of air, water, land, rail, and public transportation including intercity rail via Amtrak and light rail in Charlotte.
The northeastern mainland of the state which recently adopted the name Inner Banks is also known as the Albemarle region after the Albemarle settlements some of the earliest settlements in the North Carolina part of the Atlantic coastal plain.The internationally acclaimed North Carolina Zoo in Asheboro draws visitors to its animals plants and a 57-piece art collection along five miles (8 km) of shaded trails in the world's largest natural habitat park.Roanoke was the first English colony to be established in the New World and was also the first English colony in the North Carolina region. After being defeated by a coalition led by the Sawannos much of North Carolina's land was reclaimed by its former owners.North Carolina airports serve destinations throughout the United States and international destinations in Canada Europe Central America and the Caribbean. The port city of Wilmington North Carolina was the last Confederate port to fall into Union hands in February 1865 after Union forces won at nearby Second Battle of Fort Fisher its main downstream defense.From west to east elevation in North Carolina descends from Appalachian Mountains to coastal plain of Piedmont and Atlantic Ocean. The Fayetteville Observer established in 1816 is oldest newspaper still published in North Carolina.